Oh, we all speak English. Compulsive, competitive, conversationalists like me speak/write more than most – but, how many words are there in the English language?
Many people estimate that there are more than a million words in the English language. In fact, during a project looking at words in digitized books, researchers from Harvard University and Google in 2010 estimated a total of 1,022,000 words, and that the number would grow by several thousand each year. The Oxford English dictionary expands every year to keep up with new words that are invented to describe the world around us, or to include new meanings for words that already exist in English. A more useful number from the Oxford English Dictionary would be the 171,476 words that are in current use, and about 45,000 which are archaic, and are not used in modern English..
That’s still a lot of words, though, and doesn’t reflect the number of words that individual English speakers actually use. For that number, let’s look at a recent study by the people at testyourvocab.com who say that adult native-speakers of English have a vocabulary that ranges from the McJob-holder’s 5000-10,000, most people’s 20,000-35,000, and smarty-pants show-off word-jugglers like me, who keep 50,00 to 70,000 words in the air at all times.
Obviously, these are not the same words and everyone’s vocabulary will include different words, according to their career, education and interests. Every line of work has its own specialized ‘Jargon.’ The language, especially the vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or group: The word pneumothorax isn’t going to show up, except at a Reno convention of surgeons.
There are three key numbers to remember: more than a million total words, about 170,000 words in current use, and 20,000-30,000 words used by each individual person. No matter how many each of us use – we don’t speak MUCH English.
Truth be told, there is no “English language.” Other languages are cohesive and logical. English is like the Lost and Found at an international airport. It (kinda) started with Briton Celtic, then the Romans added Latin, and words they dragged in from Greek. The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons moved in to rule the island, and brought lots of Germanic words, and more Latin from their Roman occupation.
The Vikings brought fire and sword, and Norse words with them. Irish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic and Welsh, had their way with the tongue, and then the French invaded, bringing lots more Latin-based terms. The “English” language, and those who speak it, continue to drag back words everywhere, from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe – from Aleut to Zulu.
Many times the kidnapped words are not used as they were in the host language. In English, we sing the little song, Frère Jacques as ‘Brother John,’ but ‘Jacques’ in French, does not mean Jack = John in English. It means Jacob = James. We should be singing about Brother Jim.
I started this post because I found the word, ”matutinal” – meaning: pertaining to or occurring in the morning; early in the day, From the French word, Matin = morning. When the French have a matineé, it occurs in the morning. When we have a matineé, it happens in the afternoon.
Words become part of the accepted English language, the same way immigrants become citizens of a country – by naturalization. If it’s used often enough, and for long enough – it’s English. Some words/phrases just aren’t used enough, or they remain trapped in some jargon, and never become naturalized.
Cri de Coeur and voir dire, are heard, but remain French. Ad Populum, actus reus and mens rea, remain Latin. Pizza and Pizzazz have become part of English, but the musical word, pizzicato, remains Italian.
Even though I might only employ 5% of the English vocabulary, I’m happy to have more than enough words to interest, entertain and amuse you. There’ll be another random offering in a couple of days. 😀