Since I did a post about what’s in a name, I decided to do another about names, from a different perspective. In my preoccupation with word meanings and etymology (history), I once made the unfounded claim that English surnames which ended in “er” were descriptions of what ancestors did for a living. While mainly true, there are a few which aren’t.
Thayer (or Tayer) means descendant of an Anglo-Saxon lord named Theodoric. He gave his name to the Thay (Tay) river in the south of Scotland, so a Thayer was anyone who lived within its catchment. The name Newcomer, mostly shortened to Newcomb, is obvious.
Since few people are as fascinated with the language as I am, I am not surprised that folks often don’t know the history and meanings of words they (mis)use every day. I am somewhat surprised that so few people know the origins of their family name. When the census-takers for the Domesday Book came around in the late 11th century, what people did for a living often became their identification.
Language, spelling and technology drift have often concealed to modern folk, how their distant relatives made a buck….or a thruppence. Baker and Fisher are still obvious. A Bower bowed to his betters, because he was a general servant. A Bowyer, on the other hand, was in the lord’s militia. Bowman is the more modern equivalent, without the “er”. While we’re playing with bows and arrows, Archer shot them, and (Jessica) Fletcher put the feathers on them.
A Walker walked/trod on soaking newly woven cloth, to felt (thicken) it. A Turner ran a woodworking lathe. A Parker maintained the lord’s park, and a Palmer had been a pilgrim to the Holy Land (palm trees). Coopers originally fabricated small crates like pigeon coops, or chicken coops. Later they specialized in cylinders with curved sides, and became barrel-makers.
Chandlers started by making/selling candles. When sea-faring trade grew, ships required many candles, and those who provided them branched out to providing all things needed for ocean voyages, and the name Chandler came to mean “ship provisioner.”
People sometimes ask if a butler, buttles. The king who ordered the Domesday census was French, and some English names came from French. Originally, a butler was a “bouteillier”, the wine steward. As the job expanded, he became a gentleman’s gentleman. Frankly, Rhett wouldn’t have given a damn. That same linguistic drift has turned the likes of the Anglo-Saxon Farnsworth, into the frog Phaneuf.
At a meeting of the Kitchener council, some years ago, a suggestion was made that a particularly thorny problem be referred to Weaver, Tanner and Miller. One of the dimmer lights on the council objected to letting “a bunch of tree-hugging artisans” have a look at private city business. Someone had to explain that they were a well-known and respected consulting firm. It’s just that their ancestors wove cloth, made leather, and ground grain, respectively.
Tanner’s cousin, Cordwainer, made specialty Cordovan leather, and like the Chandler expansion above, decided to make shoes from it. A cordovaner became a shoe-maker named Cordwainer. His partner, Cobbler, has almost as rare a name.
There are many occupation names which don’t end in “er.” A Wright was someone who fabricated something; therefore the description is playwright, not playwrite. Wrightson was his kid. A wagon maker was a Wainwright, and Little Joe Cartwright made little carts. Carter was the guy who was the medieval FedEx, making quick deliveries in his small, agile vehicle.
Like our neighbors, the Wrights, we Smiths produced things too. I am happy that, as a minor writer and language-lover, I can describe myself as a wordsmith. The family names Goldsmith and Silversmith came into being, but are reserved almost exclusively for Jews. In direct opposition to the Chandlers, our job scale reduced until the only Smiths were the guys pounding on hot iron.
One reason the name Smith is so common is that every city, town and village, no matter how small, had a guy wielding Thor’s hammer. Another reason is that semi-literate immigration officials, faced with a name with 27 consonants and no vowels, just put down SMITH. An ethnic-Chinese co-worker, with the Thai name Phoumey Siamanotham, had an Immigrations official tell him, “Your name is long,” so he opened bank accounts and got a job under the name Long.
My name Smith came from the Anglicizing of Schmidt, but, before spelling rules became quite so rigid, Smidt, Smit, and Schmit also existed. They all came from the Middle-German name Schmeid, which carried the connotation of heavy fabricator, a blacksmith rather than a shoemaker. Not surprisingly, its partner, the German name Bender, means light fabricator. The forebears of the actor Michael Fassbender were Master Fabricators.
What about you, my gentle readers? Do you have, or do you know anyone with, an occupation name? Have you ever thought about it?